Sunday, 21 October 2012

8 January 1898 - Hints on Home Nursing by M.D. Goldie

ICE is employed in various ways in illness as a remedy. The ice-bag is applied to the head in cases where there is severe pain, and to various parts of the body to reduce inflammation. If a proper bag is not at hand, a common bladder from the butcher may be used filled with ice broken up into small pieces, so as to lie on the part more comfortably; if a cork is placed in the centre it may be tied more securely. The ice-bag should be slung over the place so that the weight of the bag does not rest on the part, but just be in contact with it; a piece of folded flannel or lint should be placed under it so that the bag does not rest on the bare skin; it might cause gangrene without this precaution.

Ice is given to stop sickness, or in cases of haemorrhage from the lungs, a small piece is placed on the tongue frequently. Ice should be kept in large lumps if possible, and these ought to be wrapped in a flannel or blanket. When required to be kept by the bedside a piece of flannel is tied over a cup of basin, the ice resting in the centre, the water then runs, when melted, into a cup and prevents the ice from melting too quickly. A darning needle or bonnet pin is the best thing to break up the ice with, if a proper ice pick is not at hand.

IN CROUP place the child in a warm mustard bath. Give an emetic of one teaspoonful of vin ipecac in water, or if this is not at hand, an emetic of salt or mustard and water. After removing the child from the bath place in a warmed bed, and keep hot applications to the throat. If the spasm does not pass off put the child into a steam tent. See that the bowels are opened as soon as possible.

IN FAINTING FITS make the person lie down with the head lower than the rest of the body. Apply smelling salts to the nose, and throw cold water on the face. Allow plenty of fresh air, and see that the clothes are loosened.

 A TOURNIQUET is made by a bandage or handkerchief tied over the pad, with a reef knot and a stick thrust in under the knot and twisted round until firm pressure is obtained. N.B. A tourniquet is only a temporary remedy, and must not be left on indefinitely.

IN CASES OF HAEMORRHAGE until you can get a doctor's assistance, (1) Make the person lie down and raise the bleeding part above the level of the body, and keep it at perfect rest. (2) Press the point of the thumb directly over the bleeding part until you can get help. (3) Wash the part with cold water. (4) Notice if the bleeding is from arteries or veins. The bleeding is from an artery when it is a bright red colour, and flows out in a rush; when from veins the blood is a darker purplish ed colour, and it flows out in an even stream. Place a pad on the bleeding point, and fix with a tourniquet if necessary.

Tuesday, 16 October 2012

30 April 1898 - All About Water' by T.N.D. (The New Doctor?)

Water for domestic purposes is obtained from the following sources - rain, springs, wells, streams and rivers. In mountainous countries it is also obtained by melting snow.

Waters may be divided into hard and soft. If you have ever tried to wash with soap in sea-water you will have noticed that the soap will not lather, but as soon as it is dissolved it floats to the top as a greasy scum. It is a typically hard water. When washing in rainwater the soap lathers beautifully, therefore rain-water is a soft water. The degree of hardness of water is estimated by the amount of soap which is required to make a fine lather.

The hardness of water is of two kinds, temporary and permanent. Temporary hardness is removed by boiling and is due to the presence of bicarbonate of lime and magnesia. When water containing these ingredients is boiled, the soluble bicarbonates are changed into the insoluble carbonates, which deposit as the "fur" in kettles and boilers.

Friday, 12 October 2012

21 May 1898 - Household Hints

DISCARDED tea cosies of a large size can be usefully employed to cover over hot water cans in bedrooms. The water can be kept hot for a long time if thus covered over.

CELLULOID balls and other toys, though very pretty to look at, should never be given to children, as they are highly inflammable and very dangerous.

NEVER slam an oven door if pastry or cakes are cooking in the oven - it will make them heavy.

DO not ever burn or throw away corks - they are valuable in many ways.

THE nicest way to eat an orange is to cut a slice off the top and scoop out all the juice with a tea-spoon; a spoonful of sugar can be put in the middle if the fruit is sour.

PINEAPPLE juice is said to be valuable in cases of diphtheria.

BOOTS and shoes should never be kept in a cupboard or box; they should be left where air can get freely to them, and whenever it is possible the insides should be aired.

SILK handkerchiefs are extremely nice to use, and a present of a few to an invalid would be very acceptable.

COCOA is always best made with milk, not water, and should be boiled, not merely made with boiling water.

NUTS and almonds are very nourishing food.

BEDROOM fires should be lit oftener than they are; it would save much illness and many colds, for it is when one goes to bed tired and weary after sitting in hot rooms that one is most apt to catch colds.

TOOTHBRUSHES should be occasionally placed in cold water with a little borax, sanitas or other disinfectant, and left to stand in it for a while.

Thursday, 11 October 2012

1 January 1898 - Answers to Correspondents - Medical Advice

KINDERGARTEN:- The "round lump" in your neck is undoubtedly a swollen gland, but it is necessary to discover the cause of it before considering what is the right treatment. Inflamed glands in the neck may be secondary to bad teeth, sore gums, sore places inside the mouth, inflamed or enlarged tonsils, sore throat of various kinds, sores on the face or head, and, lastly, to tuberculosis. It is only in this last case that it is commonly necessary to operate, and it is not always necessary even in this case. Bad teeth, sore gums and enlarged tonsils are the commonest causes of swollen glands. Have you any one of these? If so you should treat the primary condition and the gland will subside. If you have been told by a competent surgeons that the gland must be cut out by all means consent to have it done at once. It will leave a small and insignificant scar, whereas if left to nature the gland may break down and discharge its contents, in which case a ragged very unsightly scar will be left.

QUEEN RUVANI:- You seem to be very much more annoyed at such a trifling ailment as blushing than there is any call for. At your age it is natural for all girls to blush. A great many girls of fourteen blush whenever they are spoken to, but they outgrow it in a few years and you will do likewise. It is nothing to worry yourself about. Not only do we allow very young girls to write to us, but we encourage them to do so if we can help them in any way.

STAMMERING:- (an answer to 'ANXIOUS ONE", 'A SICKLE" and others) - It is impossible for anyone to say what is the primary cause of stammering. We cannot even say for certain whether it is an affection of the voice box, or the lips or of the brain. Sometimes we can point to some obvious unhealthy condition of the vocal organs as the cause of stammering, for the symptom goes when the local condition has been cured. but in the vast majority of cases, no morbid condition is anywhere to be discovered. IN such cases what is the cause of stammering? WE do not know for certain, but in all probability it is due to a condition of the mind. Habit has a lot to say in the production of this exceedingly tiresome defect. The habit of speaking rapidly without thought,and of clipping words is a very important cause of this condition. The cure of stammering is often a most difficult affair, but occasionally a very trifling matter. If there is any obvious defect anywhere in the vocal organs that must be seen to first and probably the stammering will cease. But how are we to proceed when no local cause can be discovered? Always speak slowly and carefully and never slur or clip your syllables. AS a rule you will find that you only stammer over one or two sounds. These differ in almost every case. The commonest letters to stammer over are P, D, R, I, M, N and K. Every person who stammers must find out what letters she has difficulty with. Then she must educate herself. Reading aloud to one's self is the best way to do this. But read carefully, distinctly and attentively, and work till you have mastered the letters that gave you trouble.

Wednesday, 10 October 2012

2 October 1897 - 'An Afternoon Wedding' by Mary Pocock - Part Two

For part one, click the tag 'an afternoon wedding'.

With regard to the dishes the following list may be useful to choose from: Sandwiches, ham, tongue, potted meat of any kind, with a little mustard (green) and cress, hard-boiled egg, with or without cress, chicken and watercress, shrimps that have been pounded in a mortar with very little nepaul or cayenne pepper, anchovy paste, or potted anchovies, cucumber, mustard and cress, watercress, shred celery, guava or quince jelly, or jam of any kind.

While writing of sandwiches, I would like to remind those who have to provide, that their success depends on the sandwiches being nicely cut and evenly buttered, and most important of all, that the bread of which they are made should be suitable and quite fresh, the general complaint being that the sandwiches "are so dry".

I always use newly-baked tin sandwich-loaves, and after they are made lodge a small plate on top of each pile, then cover with a cloth until wanted. In the course of cutting, the bread loses its newness, but at the same time when put on table, the edges are never curled and hard, as with dry bread. A variety is made by having some of the tiny rolls made for sandwiches; they are an inch wide and about three inches long, they are cut open and what is wished is put on, each making one sandwich. They are convenient and look tempting; the outsides are glazed brown. It is well to have a few dishes of these on table as well as the cut sandwiches.

Tuesday, 9 October 2012

2 October, 1897 - 'An Afternoon Wedding' by Mary Pocock - Part 1

Part one: general notes and a very detailed suggested table-setting for an average middle- to upper-middle-class wedding party at home. Part two with recipes to follow.
Since it has become the fashion to be married in the afternoon, a "breakfast" is seldom given. Twenty years ago the so-called wedding breakfast was the rule, though it then was really a luncheon, being generally served between one and half past one, and frequently commencing with clear soup. I remember about that time a wedding at the Grosvenor Hotel, at which, besides clear soup, two hot entrees were handed. I never saw tea or coffee at a wedding breakfast, but longer ago than that, both of these used to be on table at weddings. Breakfast was then usually at noon, sometimes even earlier. Of course, if the newly married pair were going any distance, it was necessary to leave much earlier in the day than it is now; express trains did not run fifty years ago at the present rate of speed. It was not possible to start for a long journey after afternoon tea with the expectation of ariving at one's destination in time for dinner! The quickness of locomotion I think has had a great deal to do with the change to the more comfortable and convenient arrangement of afternoon weddings, which were made possible by the alteration of the law which fomerly obliged people to be married before noon.

A wedding reception now is much the same in most respects as an ordinary afternoon party. The drawing-room is usually reserved for the display of presents, which are placed with the donors' cards (usually sent with gifts) on them. If there are many presents, they are placed on tables round the room, jewellery, and small articles of value, being put in glass cases. At wedding crushes in town it is necessary to have a detective in the house, for it is impossible that the bride's family should know all the bridegroom's friends, consequently strangers can go in with little risk of detection, and many thefts have been perpetrated in that way. It is only necessary for a well-dressed person to present himself at the door to gain admission to the house.

Friday, 5 October 2012

5 February 1898 - Useful Recipes

Cosmetics! And a recipe for toothpaste!

ORIENTAL FACE CREAM:- Six grains of powdered tragacanth, six drams of pure glycerine, nine ounces of triple rosewater. Mix well, and add two drams of simple tincture of benzoin. This makes a splendid white emulsion which leaves no greasy stain upon the skin.

HAIR RESTORER (IN POWDER):- Two drams of pure sugar of lead, three drams and a half of pure milk of sulphur, five grains of powdered cinnamon. Mix. To be added to twenty ounces of rosewater.

LAVENDER PERFUME FOR SMELLING SALTS:- Six drams of oil of lavender aug., five drops of oil of cloves aug., ten drops of oil of rose geranium, ten drops of attar of roses, one dram and a half of essence of ambergris, two drams of essence of bergamot, one dram and a half of essence of musk. Mix and shake well before dropping on the salts.

MACASSAR OIL.:- Ten ounces of oil of sweet almonds, three drams of oil of bergamot, two drams of oil of rose geranium, sufficient alkanet root to colour. Digest.

COCA TOOTH PASTE:- Four ounces of powdered precipitated chalk, three ounces of powdered orris root, one ounce of powdered white soap, half an ounce of powdered cuttlefish, two drams of powdered carmine, half an ounce of tincture of coca leaves, thirty drops of oil of ligu aloe, thirty drops of oil of peppermint, five drops of oil of castarilla, sufficient pure glycerine to make a paste.

BLOOM OF ROSES:- One dram of pure carmine, one dram and a half of strong solution of ammonia, three drams of pure glycerine, one dram and a half of white rose triple perfume. Sufficient triple rosewater to make up four ounces; rub up the carmine with the ammonia and glycerine, add an ounce of rosewater, and heat to drive of traces of ammonia. When cold add the white rose and make up four ounces with rosewater, and filter.

FRECKLE LOTION:- One dram of sulpho-carbolate of lime, two ounces of pure glycerine, one ounce of spirits of wine, one ounce and a half of orange flower water, three ounces and a half of triple rosewater. Mix well; to be applied morning and evening, and also after exposure.

LIME JUICE AND GLYCERINE:- Two drams of white curd-soap, two ounces of distilled water, eight ounces of fresh lime-water, eight ounces of oil of sweet almonds, one dram of oil of bergamot, half a dram of oil of lemongrass, half an ounce of essence of lemon. Well mix the oil and the lime-water in a large bottle, dissolve the soap in the distilled water by aid of heat, add the solution to the emulsion, shake well, and lastly add the essential oils.

MOUTH WASH:- Half an ounce of salts of tartar, four ounces of honey aug. opt., thirty drops of peppermint, thirty drops of oil of wintergeen, two ounces of spirits of wine, ten ounces of triple rosewater, sufficient liquid cochineal to colour. Mix well. To be used morning and evening.

WHITE HELIOTROPE:- (A) One dram of heliotrope, one ounce of extract of jasmine, one ounce of extract of white rose, two ounces of extract of ambergris, sixteen ounces of spirit of wine. (B) Thirty drops of oil of bergamot, three ounces of extract of neroly, three drops of essential oil of almonds. Mix. Allow (A and B) to stand separately for a week, then mix them and filter.

Wednesday, 3 October 2012

29 January 1898 - Answers to Correspondents - Medical

MARJORIE:- Decidedly you suffer from dyspepsia, and a very troublesome form of that complaint. that you found "quinine and iron" made you worse we readily believe. We have given advice to many girls suffering the same way as yourself; and also we have published two articles dealing with the subject of "indigestion" and food. The first article was called "Indigestion" and appeared in the December part of THE GIRL'S OWN PAPER. The second, entitled "Food in Health and Sickness" appeared in the beginning of last year. The two papers will tell you almost everything you require. You should eat very little farinaceous food, and above all things avoid tea, coffee, potatoes, cheese and pastry.An alkaline stomachich taken before meals would relieve excessive acidity.

MEASLES:- You say that when you return home from a walk "a red rash comes out all over your face". We would like to have been told whether this occurs only during the winter or windy weather, or at all times of the year. You are quite right to wear a veil. You have used all the common applications, but we will suggest one which apparently you have not tried - "Lanoline", a fine white cream. Be careful about the soap you use.

STELLA:- As blisters in the feet are caused by illfitting boots, the first thing to do to get rid of them is to look to your footgear. To make the blisters heal if they have burst, wash your feet every morning and evening in warm water, and then thickly cover the raw places with powdered boracic acid. When you have raw places upon your feet, to whatever cause they may be due, wear white stockings and change them immediately they are soiled in the slightest degree.

Tuesday, 2 October 2012

30 April, 1898 - 'Frocks For Tomorrow' by The Lady Dressmaker

In which the Lady Dressmaker expresses her opinion that Englishwomen aren't likely to take to the new fashion of smoking and reminds us that decorating hats with dead bird parts is ugly and cruel. Includes pictures.

On all sides I hear that there is to be a great revival of those fashions of the "forties" in which flounces and pelerines and mantles all flourished together; and I have no doubt that those who go in for extremes will find plenty of them. It seems likely, however, that we shall all have a choice, and that plain skirts will flourish beside those covered with flounces.

The tightness of the upper part of the skirts is something wonderful to see, but round the feet they run to four or even five yards round. And, after all, they are not ungraceful, and the flounces even may be arranged to make us look slight and tall, for they are not as those of old, gathered on the skirt and so rendered bunchy and ugly; they are in general cut so that they are of the same width, and so can be put on with no fullness at all. The number of trimmed and tucked skirts is very great, and the trimmings follow no special rule, but run vertically, horizontally, or across, just at their own sweet will, or rather that of the dressmaker who put them on. One of the new styles of trimming is seen in the rouleaux, which are either gathered, or plain, over cord. Folds of material and tucks are generally worn, and braiding of all kinds. Some of the tucks are quite astonishing; they are so very tiny, and so beautifully done, especially where the new blouses are concerned. The folds of material vary in width from half an inch to three or four inches.